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在西扎的波尔图建筑学院上学是怎样的体验(下)
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文章是一篇采访,被访者来自波尔图建筑学院。
来源:自创

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Q: 西扎常说没有什么是发明出来的,所有事物都有过去,学校的设计课是否都基于历史背景,能举出你的课程作业为例具体说明如何在有限制的历史条件下创新?

Siza often said that ‘nothing is invented, there is a past for everything.’ Are most of the design courses based on the historical background? Can you use your work as an example of how to innovate under limited historical conditions?

 

A: 学校经常强调历史对各个建筑的重要性。有趣的是某天我看到一个西扎的采访,他在讲述由他重新设计的一个大火后的里斯本历史区域。当他设计一个地方的时候,他对自己的设计非常自信,后来他意识到这个地方在在1755年的一场地震之后就被这样设计过。他说“难怪我感到这么确信呢,之前就有人这样设计过!”

我觉得在我所有设计的作品里历史限制最大的场地是一个在重要教堂旁边的项目,需要我们理解并且尊重这个教堂,而不是遮挡这个教堂。最重要的是去理解场所和一些“规则”:如果这个新建筑周围的层高都是两层,那么新建筑就不应该高于或者低于周边,如果周边建筑立面的主要材料是砖,那么新建筑就应该包含砖这个元素。同样理解建造的历史并且应用到新的设计里去也很重要。

In the university it is always stressed the importance of history to each building. It is funny, on the other day I was seeing an interview someone was doing with Siza, and he was talking about an historical part of Lisbon he redid after a fire. When designing a specific area, he felt particularly proud of the design, and he noticed that it was already designed before, after an earthquake in 1755. He was saying something like: “No wonder I was proud, someone had project it before!”

I think that in the project that I did that had the most historical conditioned place we needed to work next to an important church, and to understand and respect the church, without clouding it. The most important thing is to understand the place and to understand what are the “rules”: if the buildings next to this place are all two story high, it shouldn’t be higher or lower than this, if the place has brick as the main element in the façade, then the project should contain brick in some way. It is also important to understand the constructive history of the country and use it in the projects.

一层 First floor
©filipa
二层 Second floor
©filipa
底层 Ground floor
©filipa

 

立面 Facade
©filipa

Q: 西扎的作品乍一看都是白色的,可现场看他对高差、材料、光都有很多细节的处理,他也说建筑师的灵感来自于对现场的翻译,这点影响了你设计的思考方式吗?

Siza’s work is always white at first glance. we can tell that he has a lot of details on solution of height, material and light if we go there and see. He also said that the architect’s inspiration comes from the translation of the site, does this affect your way of thinking in design?

 

A: 当然。场地是什么样建筑就是什么样,场地的传统和历史是项目的第一个限制/特点。在我第一次去基地的时候我就开始画出我的第一个想法,尽管不是所有的想法都会最后实现,实际上最终的方案都来自于所有的过程,这使得第一次对场地的感知对我而言很重要。西扎的建筑都有白色的立面,但是利用石材,白色表面和干净的窗户则更多是其特点。他对空间的控制和通过细节创造独特场景的方法以及他把不同元素联系在统一建筑里的能力都非常具有启发性。

Yes, for sure. The site, the way the buildings are, the traditions and the history of each place is the first restrictions/characteristics of the project. On my first visit to each site, I start to draw my first ideas, and though not always these ideas go through to the end, the fact that the final solution comes from all of the process makes the first glance at the site so important for me. Most of Siza’s work has white facades, but the use of marble, white surfaces, and clear windows are more characteristic of his design. The way he controls the space, and creates particular views over one small detail, and the way he connects different elements into one cohesive building is truly inspiring.

 

Q: 我去了西扎的海滨浴场,觉得他的作品试图摆脱国际性的后现代主义装饰,他想做到对场地最大的尊重而隐藏了建筑体量,是否可以说他的风格是避免风格?

I went to Leça swimming pools designed by Siza and felt that his work tried to get rid of the international postmodernism decoration. He wanted to hide the building mass by maximizing respect for the site. Can we say that his style is to avoid style?

 

A: 我们说他的风格是尊重场所并且适应环境的,同时尽可能辅以清晰又实用的功能。海滨浴场从结构来说是60年代的,当时欧洲其余地方都出现了一些后现代主义和粗野派,在葡萄牙建筑师仍在设计传统的乡村房屋,从政治上说我们没有欧洲其他国家那样的自由。然后有趣的是像这样的建筑物凸显出来,然而“隐藏”在视线里,尽可能的尊重场地,如你所说。这个建筑的服务功能都靠近入口处,然后面向大海,利用潮汐自然而然地更新游泳池水。结构全部由混凝土组成,给我们一种粗野派建筑的感觉,暴露在自然中。这是第一个触发我很多思考的建筑,建筑应该是自然和人相统一的。

We can say that his style is to respect the site and adapt to the place, while maintaining the program as clear and functional as possible. The “Tide Swimming Pool”, as we call the structure, was made during the 60’s, and while in the rest of Europe post modernism and new brutalist designs were arising a little bit everywhere, in Portugal architects were still designing traditional vernacular buildings, because politically speaking we didn’t have the freedom the rest of Europe had. It is then so interesting to see buildings like this one that stood out, while “hiding” in the view, respecting the site as much as possible, like you said. The building has all of the services next to the entrance, and then opens to the ocean and the tides renew the swimming pool water in a natural way. The structure, all made of concrete, almost reminds us of a brutalist building, exposed to the nature. It was one of the first buildings that made me think so much about architecture as a place of both nature and men.

Leça 海滨浴场-屋顶 Leça swimming pools- roof
Leça 海滨浴场-混凝土和船木 Leça swimming pools-concrete and wood
Leça 海滨浴场-建筑的消隐 Leça swimming pools- hide building

Q: 大多数人熟悉葡萄牙建筑师是从二十世纪后期波尔图的现代化改造开始的,其中以西扎在波尔图的作品闻名,仿佛西扎的作品成了波尔图的城市名片,你如何看建筑师在沿袭和改变城市意象中的职责?

Most people are familiar with Portuguese architects starting from the modernization of Porto in the late twentieth century, which is famous for the works of Siza , as if the works of Siza became the city card of Porto, how do you think about the architects responsibilities in aspect of continuity and evolution of city image?

 

A: 西扎在葡萄牙建筑中十分重要,当然,但在他之前还有很多建筑师,像Marques da Silva,Fernando Távora,同样是城市构建中重要的人物。徳莫拉也是也重要的建筑师,尤其在市政工程方面,例如城市地铁。让城市(例如波尔图)继续发展是一个重要的责任,因为这是一个有很多历史的城市。特别是有很多优秀的建筑师,在他们周边做任何建筑都会成为挑战,但是没有挑战了建筑又会是什么样呢?然而,更新城市是必要的,然后去发展新的建筑方式。所有我提到的建筑师都有不同的设计方法,他们都不同的背景和不同个的风格,有些和其他人相似,但他们都对城市的建设作了贡献,让城市更好。建筑师最重要的角色就是让城市继续发展,有更好的职能,技术和对需求的功能有所回应。

Siza is really important in the architecture of Porto, yes, but before him there were other architects, like Marques da Silva, or Fernando Távora, that also were key figures in the structure of the city as it is today. Souto de Moura is also an important architect that is continuing this work, especially in infra-structures, as the city “metro”. It is a big responsibility to continue a city such as Porto, because it is a city with so much history, and especially with so many great architects, that building next to any of them would always be a challenge, but what would be architecture without challenges? It is, however, always necessary to renew cities, and to explore new ways of building. All of the architects I mentioned had different ways of designing, all of them came from different backgrounds with different styles, some closer than others, but all of them gave something of themselves to the construction of the city, and to make it better. The biggest role of the architect should be to continue the city on the way that can be a good functional, technical and formal response to the program needed.

 

 

相关POST
在西扎的波尔图建筑学院上学是怎样的体验(上)
文章是一篇采访,被访者为波尔图建筑学院的学生
马海东 等1人赞过
2018.08.31
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